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The development history of the battery

2021-07-27 00:00:00

The development history of the battery
          In 1746, Masonbrock of Leiden University in the Netherlands invented the "Leiden Bottle" that collects electrical charges. Because he saw that the electricity that was collected with great difficulty disappeared easily in the air, he wanted to find a way to preserve electricity. One day, he used a barrel to hang in the air, connected to the barrel with a motor, and led from the barrel with a copper wire, and immersed it in a glass bottle filled with water. He asked an assistant to have one. Holding the glass bottle in his hand, Massenbroke shook the motor vigorously. At this time, his assistant accidentally touched his other hand with the barrel of the gun. He suddenly felt a strong electric shock and shouted. Massenbruck exchanged with his assistant and asked the assistant to shake the motor. He took the water bottle in one hand and touched the barrel with the other.

        In 1780, when the Italian anatomist Luigi Galvani was doing a frog dissection, he held different metal instruments in his hands and accidentally touched the frogs thighs at the same time. The muscles of the frogs legs twitched immediately, as if It is stimulated by electric current, and if only a metal device is used to touch the frog, there will be no such reaction. Galvani believes that this phenomenon is caused by a kind of electricity generated inside the animal's body, which he calls "bioelectricity."

        Galvanis discovery aroused great interest among physicists. They raced to repeat the experiment of Fifeni, trying to find a way to generate electric current. After many experiments, the Italian physicist Volt believed that: Galvanis "Bioelectricity" is not correct. The reason why the muscles of frogs can produce electric current is probably due to some kind of liquid in the muscles. In order to demonstrate his point of view, Volt immersed two different metal pieces in various solutions for experiments. It was found that, as long as one of the two metal sheets chemically reacted with the solution, an electric current could be generated between the metal sheets.
        In 1799, the Italian physicist Volt immersed a zinc plate and a tin plate in salt water and discovered that there was current flowing through the wires connecting the two pieces of metal. So, he put a lot of flannel or paper soaked with salt water between the zinc and silver sheets and folded them flat. When you touch both ends with your hands, you will feel a strong current stimulation. Volt used this method to successfully make the world's first battery ─ ─ "Volt Stack". This "volt stack" is actually a battery pack connected in series. It became the source of electricity for early electrical experiments and telegraphs.

        In 1836, Daniel of England improved the "Volt Stack". He used dilute sulfuric acid as the electrolyte to solve the problem of battery polarization and produced the first non-polarized zinc-copper battery that can maintain a balanced current. Since then, these batteries have the problem of voltage drop with the use of time.

        When the battery voltage drops after using for a period of time, you can pass a reverse current to it to make the battery voltage rise. Because this battery can be charged and can be used repeatedly, it is called a "battery."
         Also in 1860, France's George Leclanche (George Leclanche) also invented the predecessor of the world's most widely used battery (carbon-zinc battery). Its negative electrode is an alloy rod of zinc and mercury (the negative electrode of the zinc-volt prototype battery has proven to be one of the best metals for making the negative electrode), and its positive electrode is a porous cup containing crushed two A mixture of manganese oxide and carbon. A carbon rod is inserted in this mixture as a current collector. Both the negative pole and the positive cup are immersed in an ammonium chloride solution as an electrolyte. This system is called a "wet battery". Although the batteries made by Lakeland were simple but cheap, it was not until 1880 that they were replaced by improved "dry batteries." The negative electrode is improved into a zinc can (ie, the outer casing of the battery), and the electrolyte becomes a paste instead of a liquid. Basically, this is what we know as a carbon-zinc battery.

        In 1887, the British Hellerson invented the earliest dry battery. The electrolyte of dry batteries is paste-like, does not leak, and is easy to carry, so it has been widely used.

       In 1890, Thomas Edison invented a rechargeable iron-nickel battery.

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